SkyTote to demonstrate high-speed flight with vertical takeoff
By Karen Y. Jackson, Air Force Research Laboratory Public Affairs
/ Published March 31, 2006
WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Ohio -- Air Force Research Laboratory scientists are working on a novel unmanned air vehicle called SkyTote that will take off and land vertically like a helicopter, but also transition into horizontal flight like a conventional aircraft.
SkyTote's primary mission to deliver a payload to a specific point within a tactically relevant range and time is a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort orchestrated by AeroVironment Inc of Monrovia, Calif., for AFRL's Air Vehicles Directorate.
According to AFRL's Tom Cord, SkyTote program manager, the aircraft is a concept demonstrator and not a working system. "We are not trying to reach a certain performance and capability; we are trying to show that a hovering UAV with a fast, forward speed is a likelihood. It's something we can do in a simple way," he said.
Researchers are hopeful that after careful analysis and testing, SkyTote will become a safe, inexpensive and reliable choice for assessing bomb damage and conducting resupply missions or emergency troop evacuations. The SkyTote combines the vertical takeoff, and landing and hover capabilities of helicopters with the high-speed cruise capability of a fixed-wing aircraft. Counter-rotating propellers with individual cyclic control provide propulsion. Propulsion and transition from wing to propeller flight are some of the major technical challenges in this effort.
Because of the cyclic control, SkyTote has the look of a helicopter when it is flying in helicopter mode. When it is flying like an airplane, the helicopter propeller-rotor system functions more like a propeller.
"It's not a great rotor or propeller; it's a good compromise between a helicopter rotor system and an airplane propeller, and that's part of what we are trying to show is that this system will work well for this type of airplane. When you look at the design parameters, you either go one way or the other. When you start to blend the two systems together, it becomes challenging. That is one of the big areas we have addressed during the past few years," Mr. Cord said.
Researchers have been working on various versions of the SkyTote since 1998. The original vehicle was smaller with a design meant to deliver a 400-pound payload to a point within a 300-mile range in less than two hours. During the initial design phase, the vehicle was redesigned from the original 2-foot to an 8-foot vehicle to make it more realistic and usable for customers.
The new test vehicle was altered to carry a 50-pound payload within 150 nautical miles because researchers believed a medium-sized vehicle would be a more representative test of technology and would be directly useful to customers. Mr. Cord said these characteristics cannot be met by conventional helicopters and fixed-wing vehicles. Conventional helicopters with the same payload characteristics can only attain speeds between 100 and 105 knots, while the SkyTote, equipped with hover capabilities, can attain speeds of 200 knots.
The change in payload capabilities created a more realistic, mechanical system, rather than a simplified concept demonstrator. It also created more challenges for developers. "We had to choose a different type of engine, a 52-horsepower engine from UAV Engines, Ltd., a real engine that could be seen in a car almost," Mr. Cord said. "Our vehicle is 208 pounds, so we've grown significantly. We added a more complex transmission, too."
A more complex, heavier mechanical system also meant that developers had to look closely at the control aspects of the vehicle. "The reason for this is that excess power reduces the need for a carefully conceived flight control system and helps avoid several problem areas, such as loss of control. With less thrust-to-weight, we have to rely on the flight control system and the pilot to keep us out of dangerous flight conditions. Autonomous control gives us an advantage during testing because it provides safer, more efficient tests," Mr. Cord said.
During testing, SkyTote is expected to operate in hover and conventional wing-borne flight while also transitioning from hover to wing-borne and back. A pilot will be standing by to take control of the plane, if needed. However, most of the testing will be controlled autonomously. Developers say these transitions have to be done at least five times to demonstrate that SkyTote and its characteristics are a good concept and should be considered for future applications.
The next cycle of SkyTote testing will be conducted in June at Camp Roberts in California.